Speechreading literature review
Speechreading provides practical exercises illustrating the use of these communication strategies in actual situations. What should I do before writing the literature review? Phonology, working memory, and foreign-language learning.. Speechreading is used by persons with typical hearing and those with hearing loss, …. Jul 16, 2019 · Stylistics is a branch of applied how to write a thesis about culture and geography linguistics concerned with the study of style in texts, especially, but not exclusively, in literary works. A literature review may consist of simple a summary of key sources, but it usually has an organizational pattern and combines both summary and synthesis, often speechreading literature review within specific conceptual categories.A summary is a recap of the important information of the source, but a synthesis is a re-organization, or a reshuffling, of that information in a way that informs how ….
The (deaf) man who taught my Speechreading course, read the lips of his professors for a bachelor and master's degree, without the help of a Reviews: 8 Format: Paperback Author: Harriet Kaplan Literature Reviews - The Writing Center https://writingcenter.unc.edu/tips-and-tools/literature-reviews Literature reviews are written occasionally in the humanities, but mostly in the sciences and social sciences; in experiment and lab reports, they constitute a section of the paper. American Literature. 880–907. A technique for understanding unheard speech dissertation economics by interpreting the lip speechreading literature review and facial movements of the speaker. J. I critique this view and present a macro-analysis of the experimental literature.
Speechreading is more than lipreading Speechreading is a broader term speechreading literature review that involves lipreading together with the in-terpretation of body language, facial expressions, and linguistic and situational cues. Volta Review, v90 n5 p149-60 Sep 1988. Without these elements, any essays compton mackenzie piece of literature would cease to make sense or serve a purpose Tips on communicating with deaf people from the National Technical Institute for the Deaf(NTID) Nov 01, 2017 · Free Online Library: Teaching language components to deaf/hard-of-hearing and cochlear implant users: a literature review.(texto en ingles) by "Revista CEFAC: Atualizacao Cientifica em Fonoaudiologia e Educacao"; Languages and linguistics Adquisicion del lenguaje Evaluacion Education Methods Implantes cocleares Uso Implants, Artificial Investigacion ….n. Speechreading synonyms, Speechreading pronunciation, Speechreading translation, English dictionary definition of Speechreading. CHC offers New York’s only speechreading program Speechreading synonyms, Speechreading pronunciation, Speechreading translation, English dictionary definition of Speechreading. Conducting a Literature Review So far we have discussed the initial stages of any a typical research project: hypothesis formation, conceptualization, measurement, and the development of a suitable research design.
The dissertation consists of a summary and the following studies: 1 The speechreading of adults with postlingual profound hearing impairment (persons who became hearing impaired after having established their oral language) improved when they combined speechreading http://cultureandstuff.com/2020/01/20/literature-review-of-copd with a tactile speech signal presented through a vibratory aid COVID-19 Resources. Speechreading is difficult and requires hours of practice. P. your ability to synthesize the sources you select. Screening for Speech and Language Delay: A Systematic Review of the Literature. The February issue of the Journal included a review of Conversation Made Easy: Speechreading and Conversation Strategies: Training for Children speechreading literature review with Hearing Loss who Have Advanced Listening and Language Skills Speechreading with Tactile Supplements. One reason phone conversations can be particularly difficult for a hard of hearing person is the lack of a face to “read.”. Sénéchal, Monique & Laura Young.
International audienceIn this review, we discuss evidence from our recent studies and the literature that deaf patients after cochlear implantation partly rely research paper biodegradation dyes on visual cues during auditory recovery and develop mechanisms of audio-visual integration as a strategy to maintain high levels of speech recognition in the noisy auditory environments provided by cochlear …. Greenberg and Bode (1968) showed that speechreading performance was I thanV three …. A. Neuropsychological dissociations in two cases ( Campbell et al., 1986) suggested a very clear pattern: speechreading, but not speechreading literature review face recognition, can be impaired by left‐hemisphere damage,. Regardless of this commonality, both types of review vary significantly.
Theoretical and Review Articles The Structure and Optimization of Speechreading Paul Arnold University of Manchester Erber (1988) has claimed that one of the reasons for the as cendancy of hearing aids has been the loss of confidence in speechreading. Speechreading is one of the most important tools a person with hearing loss can learn. There are many different types of speechreading literature review literature reviews. It is an assessment of the literature and provides a summary, classification, comparison and evaluation. At postgraduate level literature reviews can be incorporated into an article, a research report or thesis Literature review on speaking skill. Hawkins D. Occasionally you will be asked to write one as a separate assignment (sometimes in the form of an annotated bibliography —see the bottom of the next page), but more often it is part of the introduction to an essay, research report. speechreading ability, neither do they rely on a different set of cognitive components for successful speechreading.
Speechreading can be of value to those suffering from presbyacusis and other hearing disorders, in. For many students, deciding the topics for literature review papers is the most challenging speechreading literature review part of creating a lit overlook work In the current study we address a gap in the literature on speechreading. Collaborative learning exercises—such as peer review workshops, collaborative research assignments, group presentations, collaborative papers and discussion groups—are important components of our writing classrooms because they encourage active learning, giving students the opportunity to become more deeply engaged with their writing, and. I have found it helpful to be as systematic as possible when completing this gargantuan task. A literature review is not an annotated bibliography in which you summarize briefly each article that you have reviewed. Speech for School Children on Dr. Auditory recovery and speechreading in cochlear implanted deaf patients: A review we review the PET neuroimaging literature, which indicates …. Find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for Speechreading: A Way to Improve Understanding at Amazon.com.
Literature speechreading review
Posterior superior temporal regions play a significant role in speechreading natural speech, including audiovisual binding in hearing people In the context of face processing, the skill of processing speech from faces (speechreading) occupies a unique cognitive and neuropsychological niche The study explored the speechreading experiences of five people who are deaf and five, hard of hearing born to hearing parents. "Speechreading (rather than just lipreading) is increasingly being investigated by researchers to enhance current speech recognisers by adding visual information from the face of a talker. Anales de la novela de posguerra. The following table provides a detailed explanation as well as the differences between systematic and. Service, Elisabet. speechreading literature review For so many people, this is how they get their information, by "reading lips". Jan 30, 2020 · It’s common to confuse systematic and literature reviews because both are used to provide a summary of the existent literature or research on a specific topic. Effectiveness of counseling-based adult group aural rehabilitation programs: a systematic review of the literature Mar 04, 2009 · Investigating the psycholinguistic correlates of speechreading in preschool age children Davies, Rebecca; Kidd, Evan; Lander, Karen 2009-03-04 00:00:00 Introduction Visual information from a speaker's mouth and face plays an important role in the perception and understanding of spoken language (for a review, see Massaro 1998 ). term speechreading is preferred over lipreading, as speechreading encompasses more skills than reading lips alone.
Deaf children deserve …. Speechreading requires structural encoding of faces as faces, but further analysis of visible speech is supported by a network comprising several lateral temporal regions and inferior frontal regions. Oct 26, 2016 · 2 Minute Speech for School speechreading literature review Children on The Importance of English; A Speech for School Children on the Importance of Books and Reading; 2 Minute Speech on the Meaning of Life! Abstract. The main aims were to (1) to determine whether speechreading and vocabulary are independent predictors of reading ability in deaf children; (2) to investigate the role of speechreading at different linguistic levels for different components of reading ability (i.e. Key words: Speechreading, individual differences, cognitive components, speech perception, hearing impairment, compensation. Scuola Normale. They vary in terms of comprehensiveness, types of study included, and purpose.
Theoretical and Review Articles The Structure and Optimization of Speechreading Paul Arnold University of Manchester Erber (1988) has claimed that one of the reasons for the as cendancy of hearing aids has been the loss of confidence in speechreading. analysis of the literature. As you read, you'll encounter various ideas, disagreements, methods, and perspectives which. You will probably include less. May 02, 2003 · The growing cognitive literature on early acquisition of signed language and its facilitative impact on cognitive functions (eg, attention, spatial functions, and memory) also testifies to the possibility of cortical plasticity, neural reorganization, and concomitant perceptual-cognitive changes in the deaf (for a review, see Rönnberg. Speechreading: Advances in Understanding its Cortical Bases and Implications speechreading literature review for Deafness and Speech Rehabilitation Article · Literature Review (PDF Available) in Scandinavian audiology All these encounters, observation and related literature review triggered the researcher to explore speechreading experiences of people who are deaf or hard of hearing born to hearing parents with a view to turn the experiences and findings into best practices and also to help hearing parents. n. The review of the short story is a critical analysis and evaluation of a work written in the scientific, artistic, or journalistic style to form an opinion about it for the target audience.
Narrative Essay Powerpoint
It is a technique used to understand the spoken word by attending to the mouth and facial cues. Posterior superior temporal regions play a significant role in speechreading natural speech, including audiovisual binding in hearing people. Start studying Exam 3 Review (Chapters 11-15). Let’s get to it! Anales speechreading literature review de la literatura española contemporánea. Do you know how to write a short story review, and what is the purpose? A Student’s Inspiring Election Campaign Speech for the Post of School Leader! The aim of the review was to collate research informed evidence of literacy intervention practices used to support.
Research speechreading literature review on literacy development is increasingly making clear the centrality of oral language to long-term literacy development, with longitudinal studies revealing the continuity between language ability in the preschool years and later reading. does speechreading at different linguistic levels exhibit different relationships with reading components); (3) to …. 245–302. Efficacy of individual auditory training in adults: a systematic review of the evidence. How well you answer this question depends upon: the effectiveness of your search for information. A good literature review is critical for academic research in any field, whether it is for a research article, a critical review for coursework, or a dissertation. We can’t help to be effective in communication Developmental Review 14(3). This is in line with results from the deaf adult literature where speechreading has been found to correlate significantly with reading A review of the literature on reading and deafness. Choose 3 different settings/3 different. The purpose is to provide your reader with an overview of the research that has been done on your topic, and to evaluate the sources you are reviewing. Vocabulary knowledge and speechreading are important for deaf children's reading development but it is unknown whether they are independent predictors of reading ability.This study investigated the relationships between reading, speechreading and vocabulary in a large cohort of deaf and ….
Career Objective For Resume For Fresher Teacher
Speechreading is often used synonymously with the term lipreading though both have similarities and differences. Plant, Geoff. The relative contributions of speechreading and vocabulary to deaf and hearing children's reading ability. The Impact of speechreading literature review Speechreading Programs on Adults with Hearing Loss: Literature Review. 2008. an audiologist, the local library, or a speech and hearing center) Writing a Literature Review: A literature review is a type of critical review in which you analyze and evaluate many sources on a specific topic. Speechreading as used here means using the visual clues of the speaker’s lip and facial movements, gestures, posture and body language, along with residual hearing to make use of the speaker’s verbal communication, intonation and context to infer meaning (formerly known as lip reading). Conclusions Young HA users in China have enhanced speechreading performance over their peers with hearing impairment who are not HA users Previous research has provided evidence for a speechreading advantage in congenitally deaf adults compared to hearing adults. The Phi Beta Kappa Key. Below are some examples of literature reviews written by ACAP students. We adopted the distinc-tion proposed by Summerﬁeld (Summerﬁeld, 1992): Lipreading is perception of speech purely by observing the talker’s articula-tory gestures, while speechreading is understanding of speech by observing the talker’s articulatory, facial and manual gestures The literature review was conducted in four phases divided as: search, selection, literature description and results analysis, described hereafter and illustrated in Figure 1: 1 st Phase: Search for studies in Brazilian and international databases using keywords selected through DECS ( Descritores em Ciências da Saúde - BIREME ; Terms in Health Sciences) in both Portuguese ….
Oct 31, 2015 · Speechreading (or lipreading), which is the skill of processing speech from the visible movements of the head, face and mouth, has the potential to be useful in phonological processing when hearing is absent Phonological Awareness, Speechreading and Deaf Children’s Reading The issue A long standing debate in research pertaining to deaf education is whether deaf children read in the same way as hearing children and, in particular, whether they use phonology when reading She differs from most of the 119 individuals in the control group, as she uses a particular speechreading strategy in which she attempts to repeat overtly each spoken word as soon as it has been uttered, and to summarize and fill in missing pieces of information whenever it is possible (e.g., during pauses) during the conversation Jul 02, 2015 · Writing a literature review is often the most daunting part of writing an article, book, thesis, or dissertation. In a recent article, I presented detailed steps for doing a literature review using open source software Nov 12, 2019 · Covers what speechreading literature review a lit review is, lit review types, writing a lit review and further readings. Writing a Literature Review. A technique for understanding unheard speech by interpreting the lip and facial movements of the speaker. The effect of family literacy interventions on children’s acquisition of reading from kindergarten to grade 3: A meta-analytic review. J Am Acad Audiol. AbstractIn this review, we discuss evidence from our recent studies and the literature that deaf patients after cochlear implantation partly rely on visual cues during auditory recovery and …. A reading of the experimental literature re- ' (or we might add, in the context of adult speechread veals an unresolved tension as to where speechreading ing, experience or neglect). Local organizations or individuals that assist deaf and hard-of-hearing people may be able to refer you to local sources of lipreading instruction (e.g. Speechreading and its association with reading among deaf, hearing and dyslexic individuals Tara Mohammed Department of Human Communication, University College London, UK , Ruth Campbell Department of Human Communication, University College London, UK Correspondence email@example.com. “The literature” seems (and often is) massive.
A considerable amount is known about the structure and nature of speechreading. Under noisy. Increased knowledge of this skill would have great benefits in psychological, social and economic terms the speechreading skills of normally hearing; orally educated hearing-impaired; and bilingually educated hearing-impaired 10-year-old children. A well-written literature review should provide your readers a deep insight on the writings that helped you build your research. May 02, 2003 · The growing cognitive literature on early acquisition of signed language and its facilitative impact on cognitive functions speechreading literature review (eg, attention, spatial functions, and memory) also testifies to the possibility of cortical plasticity, neural reorganization, and concomitant perceptual-cognitive changes in the deaf (for a review, see Rönnberg, Söderfeldt & Risberg 12) How to Write a Literature Review. Use these to gain an understanding of the generic structure and language used when writing your own literature reviews Mar 23, 2020 · Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research Research Article 18 April 2020 The Relation Between Linguistic Awareness Skills and Spelling in Adults: A Comparison Among Scoring Procedures Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research …. While a summary of the what you have read is contained within the literature review, it goes well beyond merely summarizing professional literature Speechreading is a broader term that involves lipreading together with the interpretation of body language, facial expressions, and linguistic and situational cues. It amazing how much they have to concentrate and pay attention. Sometimes a literature review is written as a paper in itself.
Speechreading is a skill that does not require complex technology, although it does augment the effectiveness of hearing aids. Increased knowledge of this skill would have great benefits in psychological, social and economic terms Given that speechreading provides visual access to spoken language, it is perhaps not surprising that speechreading has been argued to play an important role in deaf children's reading …. the speechreading skills of normally hearing; orally educated hearing-impaired; and bilingually educated hearing-impaired 10-year-old children. The other pages in this guide will cover some basic steps to consider when conducting a traditional health sciences. Speechreading can be of value to those suffering from presbyacusis and other hearing disorders, in. Tests of speechreading, reading, and visual and rhythm mem-ory were administered and resulted in different pat-terns of correlations within each of the three groups REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE SPEECHREADI NG DEFINED The terms "lipreading" and "speechreading" are generally used interchangeably to describe a process of perceiving speech through the visual channel. Lipreading connotes direct observation of lip movements to detect each phoneme produced by. A recent review of the literature and extant speechreading literature review speechreading tests by Woodhouse, Hickson and Dodd (2009) identified the need for a valid assessment of speechreading skills in hearing-impaired children. It is an excellent book for late-deafened adults, families and friends, parents of children with hearing loss, and professionals and students Furthermore, there was a positive correlation between years of HA use and the accuracy of speechreading performance; longer HA use was associated with more accurate speechreading.
Popular Report Editing For Hire Ca
A literature review asks: What do we know - or not know - about this particular issue/ topic/ subject? Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other speechreading literature review study tools An interactive speechreading resource is reviewed. There are many gaps in the literature, and the review identified …. Dec 07, 2010 · Reading good literature is an experience of pleasurebut it is also an experience of learning what and how we are, in our human integrity and our human imperfection, with our actions, our dreams, and our ghosts, alone and in relationships that link us to others, in our public image and in the secret recesses of our consciousness. This knowledge is outlined and related to efforts to optimize the teaching and learning of speechreading in adults Jun 06, 2007 · Sweetow R, Palmer C. I truly could not exist in the environment that I live in without speechreading along with my aided hearing.” – CHC Client. We argue that the converging findings suggesting that speechreading may play a role in the language and reading development of typically-hearing children combined with the lack of current normative data regarding speechreading … Cited by: 27 Publish Year: 2013 Author: Fiona Elizabeth Kyle, Ruth Campbell, Tara Mohammed, Mike Coleman, Mairéad MacSweeney Speechreading and the Bruce–Young model of face https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.2044-8295.2011.02021.x Speechreading requires structural encoding of faces as faces, but further analysis of visible speech is supported by a network comprising several lateral temporal regions and inferior frontal regions. A literature review is not just a summary. However, it shouldn’t just be a sequence of names and data.
199). Annali della R. Anales de la narrativa española contemporánea. The early literature suggests that infants are sensitive to the synchrony between sound and mouth movements. For these five students speechreading skills will only help them improve on their communication skills in the classroom as well as in everyday life International audienceIn this review, we discuss evidence from our recent studies and the literature that deaf patients after cochlear implantation partly rely on visual cues during auditory recovery and develop mechanisms of audio-visual integration as a strategy to maintain high levels of speech recognition in the noisy auditory environments provided by cochlear implants.. A literature review is an account of what has been published on a topic by accredited scholars and researchers. 2005;16:494-504. Rehabilitation maybe facilitated through introduction of communication programs that include auditory training, speechreading, and auditory-visual training coupled with improvements in communication strategies, conversational fluency, assertiveness, stress management, speechreading literature review and personal adjustment.. Journal of Spanish Studies: Twentieth Century. Reliable information about the coronavirus (COVID-19) is available from the World Health Organization (current situation, international travel).Numerous and frequently-updated resource results are available from this WorldCat.org search.OCLC’s WebJunction has pulled together information and resources to assist library staff as they consider how to handle …. speechreading may have an innate, "hard-wired," com- larization, which occurs as the product of development ponent.
The Literature Review Process A guide from the University of North Texas on selecting a topic, searching the literature, plan before reviewing, reviewing the literature and writing the review and ‘‘speechreading’’ in the literature. Jan 28, 2020 · Resources are available for both adults and children to learn speechreading skills. Cited speechreading literature review by: 9 Publish Year: 2011 Author: Ruth Campbell Speechreading and the Bruce–Young model of face https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.2044-8295.2011.02021.x In the context of face processing, the skill of processing speech from faces (speechreading) occupies a unique cognitive and neuropsychological niche. What is a literature review? Perhaps Karmiloff-Smith's. lip reader n. A literature review is a survey of scholarly sources that provides an overview of a particular topic. Literature reviews are a collection of the most relevant and significant publications regarding that topic in order to provide a comprehensive look at what has been said on the topic and. Tests of speechreading, reading, and visual and rhythm mem-ory were administered and resulted in different pat-terns of correlations within each of the three groups The National Speechreading Program is a three-part project that includes the creation of a National Guideline, the development of the training program (consisting of 3 manuals, and an online tool), and finally the delivery of training workshops to Instructor Trainees Lip Reading / Speechreading.
Sonja Foss and William Walters* describe an efficient and effective way of writing a. Aug 15, 2019 · In their review of the literature on strategies for teaching deaf children grapheme–phoneme correspondences, Tucci, Trussell, and Easterbrooks (2014) highlighted the speechreading literature review dearth of intervention studies in this area and argued that “the evidence base for literacy interventions in the field of deaf education is still in its infancy” (pp. Speechreading performance varies broadly across individuals (children and adults, those Important to improving your speechreading skills is personal awareness of how well you do in different settings and with different individuals. I suggest that the innate view may be somewhat overstated. A review of the experimental literature on speech perception suggests that the visual and auditory In the current study we address a gap in the literature on speechreading. A ‘perceptual compensation’ account of this finding proposes that prolonged early onset deafness leads to a greater reliance on visual, as opposed to auditory, information when perceiving speech which in turn results in superior visual speech perception …. In an effort to help the home-bound during this COVID-19 Virus Pandemic, we are offering to e-mail lip reading lessons one chapter at a time to those interested in taking the course via email instruction. Oct 31, 2015 · Europe PMC is an archive of life sciences journal literature. Review of Educational Research 78(4).
One of the first things you will need to determine is how good literature review topics going to be. Sep 16, 2014 · – Speechreading also involves watching the speaker’s facial expressions and body language to determine context and emotion. At some point early in the process it is important to spend time reading others' reports of similar research review of related literature 2.1 Definition of Speaking According to Harmer (1991 : 46-47) states that when the two people are engaged in talking to each other we can be sure that they in general way to suggest that a speaker makes a define decision to address someone.. It is well known that acoustic-only speech recognisers fail in noisy conditions while a human 'listener' is still able to understand the speech Speechreading for deaf and hard of hearing adults Speechreading (lip reading) Learn • Advantages and limitations of speechreading • How to combine what you see with what you hear • How to identify the factors speechreading literature review that affect your ability to communicate • How to use a variety of strategies to communicate more effectively. Reviewed is the historical development of tactile aids to supplement speechreading by hearing-impaired individuals, from early use of bone conduction vibrators driven by hearing aids, to multichannel tactile aids representing the full speech spectrum. 1992. OBJECTIVES To review the available literature on the screening of permanent childhood hearing impairment. Speechreading is a skill that does not require complex technology, although it does augment the effectiveness of hearing aids. All stories must have certain characteristics or elements. The early literature suggests that infants are sensitive to the synchrony between sound and mouth movements.
Write Best College Essay On Presidential Elections
Journal of Deaf Studies speechreading literature review and Deaf Education. The American Poetry Review. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users Theoretical and Review Articles The Structure and Optimization of Speechreading Paul Arnold University of Manchester Erber (1988) has claimed that one of the reasons for the as cendancy of hearing aids has been the loss of confidence in speechreading. The American Scholar. American Speech. The literature on older children suggests that variables related to literacy, in particular, phonological awareness, predict performance on speechreading tasks A literature review provides an overview of what's been written about a specific topic. Abdul Kalam the Missile Man of India and a Dreamer!. Descriptive reports suggest: 1. What is a literature review? lip reader n. 4.1/5 (35) [PDF] How to Write a Mini Literature Review - MIT … https://ocw.mit.edu/courses/biology/7-16 How to Write a Mini Literature Review A literature review is a piece of discursive prose, not a list describing or summarizing one piece of literature after another AAC and Literacy intervention – a review of the literature The Communication Trust commissioned this literature review as part of a more extensive AAC and literacy intervention project, funded by the DfE.
Jul 17, 2018 · A literature review is a critical analysis of published sources, or literature, on a particular topic. does speechreading at different linguistic levels exhibit different relationships with reading components); (3) to …. To identify areas for further research and service development Speechreading (or lipreading) therapy “Learning to speechread has improved my life! If you are interested, email the Chapter at firstname.lastname@example.org and in the subject line please put email lip. Unio Thomistica. Speechreading can be of value to those suffering from presbyacusis and other hearing disorders, in. Greenberg and Bode (1968) showed that speechreading performance was I thanV three …. It should have speechreading literature review a solid structure with clear explanation and, above all, it.
Aids to Speechreading It is important to note that speechreading is an acquired skill that may take months to perfect Speech reading is using what you see on the speaker’s lips as well as facial expressions and gestures to understand conversation. To provide commissioners and providers of health care with information about how to deliver a more uniform service, better outcomes, and more cost-effective screening. Speechreading in Context: A Guide for Practice in Everyday Settings A Sharing Ideas series paper by the Laurent Clerc National Deaf Education Center, Gallaudet University Practice:. Mar 31, 2020 · These will guide you towards an application of the fundamental characteristics required in the review. The literature on older children suggests that variables. Also called literary linguistics, stylistics focuses on the figures, tropes, and other rhetorical devices used to provide variety and a distinctness to someone's writing Definition of Character in Literature. The main aims were to (1) to determine whether speechreading and vocabulary are independent predictors of reading ability in deaf children; (2) to investigate the role of speechreading at different linguistic levels for different components of reading ability (i.e. Oct 24, 2019 · Lip reading, also called speechreading, is speechreading literature review the act of using visual cues of the speaker’s lip movements, body language and facial expressions to understand the meaning of what is being said.
How To Write A Business Plan For A Cookbook
The language competencies that literacy builds upon begin to speechreading literature review emerge as soon as children begin acquiring language; thus, the period ….